Responses to Questions about Civil Marriage Issue

 
 
 NOTE:  The SOSSCC Assembly voted unanimously to adopt the WC Recommendation below.   
 
2011-02-27 WC Listening Session Questions, with Worship Committee’s Responses

 In solidarity with other churches seeking justice and as a practice of inclusiveness and hospitality, the Worship Committee recommends that SOSSCC bless all unions between two adult persons, but as a community not sign and file marriage licenses (the civil obligations of the officiant in order to have the marriage recognized by the State) until all unions are recognized by the State of Minnesota. 

Here are the questions raised at the 2011-02-27 Community Listening Session held by the Worship Committee, with responses from the Worship Committee.  It was evident that people were interested in how we would handle the Sacrament of Matrimony since we’ve not had one since we became the SOSSCC.   Thus far, the WC has had two short Sacramental Retreats to discuss how we do the sacraments.  We’ve had a number of baptisms, including one adult one, we’ve had First Communions in 2008, 2009, & 2010, and several funerals.  We’ve also learned that our young people near Confirmation age and their parents are not interested in having Confirmation as the Roman Church does, but want the young people learning from their elders, especially about justice issues, and involved in service projects.  Thus far, we’ve not been approached by anyone seeking a wedding or union ceremony.

Can we use Matrimony to define the Sacrament and Marriage to mean a civil marriage?
 Great idea! The Worship Committee has discussed language but didn’t come to any conclusion.

Civil Marriages

What is necessary if a person wants a marriage “legal”?

Minnesota Marriage Laws are found in the 2010 Minnesota Statutes Chapter 517. Marriage
and are available online at www.revisor.mn.gov/statutes/?id=517&view=chapter  and are also attached to this document as Exhibit A.  Minn. Stat. 517.01, MARRIAGE A CIVIL CONTRACT, states:
Marriage, so far as its validity in law is concerned, is a civil contract between a man and a woman, to which the consent of the parties, capable in law of contracting, is essential. Lawful marriage may be contracted only between persons of the opposite sex and only when a license has been obtained as provided by law and when the marriage is contracted in the presence of two witnesses and solemnized by one authorized, or whom one or both of the parties in good faith believe to be authorized, so to do.


Would the State recognize a marriage if we wanted them to; e.g., do we have the authority to perform legal marriages?
What is the procedure necessary to be legally able to perform civil marriages?

Minn. Stat.517.04, in enumerating those authorized to legally perform marriages includes “a licensed or ordained minister of any religious denomination……”   SOSSCC of course does not ordain ministers.  Minn. Stat. 517.05 CREDENTIALS OF MINISTER, states:
Ministers of any religious denomination, before they are authorized to solemnize a marriage, shall file a copy of their credentials of license or ordination or, if their religious denomination does not issue credentials, authority from the minister's spiritual assembly, with the local registrar of a county in this state, who shall record the same and give a certificate of filing thereof. The place where the credentials are recorded shall be endorsed upon and recorded with each certificate of marriage granted by a minister.

It is conceivable that SOSSCC might wish to authorize certain prayer leaders as ministers as provided in Minn. Stat. 517.05.  Also, we have in our community a number of people who are ordained ministers and have performed marriages.   (One can be ordained as a minister of the Universal Life Church online.)

Ramsey County’s page on getting a Marriage license is attached as Exhibit B.
The process is much like applying for recognition of a domestic partnership; see Exhibit C.

How old is an adult?  An adult is someone 18 years of age or older for most Minnesota and federal purposes and seems like a reasonable age.


Blessing of Unions at SOSSCC

Did we arrive at this to be in solidarity with GLBT people?
 You could say that.  We believe it’s an issue of justice, inclusion, and hospitality.  Churches are asked to do ‘Caesar’s work’ in signing marriage licenses but only for heterosexual couples.

What was our process?
There were a number of Union Ceremonies at Saint Stephen’s.  Early on, there were even a few Nuptial Masses for same sex persons.  As the Archdiocese took issue with such practices, the pastor stepped back from presiding at such ceremonies.

Since we are now no longer controlled by the Roman church, we have an opportunity to live our beliefs.

Specifically, since the formation of SOSSCC, the WC has had several Sacramental Retreats to have an opportunity outside the usual busy monthly meetings to consider Sacraments.  At our first Sacraments Retreat, in July 2010, we talked about marriage and Union Ceremonies came up and it was clear we had consensus within our group that people shouldn’t be treated differently depending on whether the partners were same sex or opposite sex or whatever.  Therefore, we brought it to the  to the Assembly for a decision.  We had had short discussions before; we were aware that a number of congregations have made this decision.

Is it the WC intent that we not perform civil marriages until the state allows all adults to marry or until it recognizes domestic partnerships?
Our intent is that we would not have civil marriages performed in our community until all adults could be civilly married. 

Would the Blessing of a Union be in the Sunday liturgy or a separate liturgy?
We expect they would be separate liturgies, as weddings have always been.

Who would perform the ceremony? We expect that our prayer leaders would lead the prayer, as they do for other liturgies.

Would there be marriage prep program like the Archdiocese provides? Do other churches do the marriage prep? 
SOSSCC would need to provide marriage prep or find another resource for those planning to marry. We haven’t researched possibilities. That is not specifically a WC responsibility, but might be one shared with Adult Education or become a separate Committee.  The Council would no doubt discuss how it should be handled.  At St Stephen’s, the core of marriage preparation was a compatibility test and having a mentor couple; that is typical of many churches.

Would we offer it only to our congregation and how do we define that? Registered members?
That’s a decision for the Council and Assembly, but we believe that requiring registration is appropriate, since planning and conducting these liturgies requires staff and volunteer time.

If staffing is a limitation on how broad we could be, is it time to hire staff? Staffing is always an issue for the Council and Assembly, but we don’t think we should become a place offering services to all, like a wedding chapel.  Also, keep in mind that even with staff, it takes many volunteers to put on a liturgy, and think about whether we want to use staff time that way.

Could a couple have a wedding here and bring along someone to perform the civil marriage part? We think that would violate the intent of the proposal; people can have the civil marriage performed elsewhere.   There’s a tradeoff between burden and justice.

Would we do a wedding for those who married out of state?
Would we offer the Sacrament to people who are divorced and want to remarry but have no annulment?

WC hasn’t discussed these situations and doesn’t see itself as the “Decider” on such things.

Would St. S endorse the goals of a group working to have the State of Minnesota allow GLBT people to marry?
That’s a question to be answered by the Assembly, but based on our history, we’d expect the Assembly would say Yes.  Anyone interested in this subject should submit it to the Council.
EXHIBIT A MINN. LAW ON MARRIAGE
2010 Minnesota Statutes Chapter 517. Marriage

www.revisor.mn.gov/statutes/?id=517&view=chapter
 
Section Headnote   
517.0001 MS 2006 Renumbered 15.001   
517.001 Definition   
517.01 Marriage a Civil Contract   
517.02 Persons Capable of Contracting   
517.03 Prohibited Marriages   
517.04 Persons Authorized to Perform Marriages   
517.041 Power to Appoint Court Commissioner; Duty   
517.05 Credentials of Minister   
517.06 Parties Examined   
517.07 License   
517.071 Repealed, 1978 c 699 s 17   
517.08 Application for License   
517.09 Solemnization   
517.10 Certificate; Witnesses   
517.101 Certified Copies of Marriage Certificate   
517.11 Repealed, 1951 c 700 s 5   
517.12 Repealed, 1951 c 700 s 5   
517.13 Penalty for Failure to File Certificate   
517.14 Illegal Marriage; False Certificate; Penalty   
517.15 Unauthorized Person Performing Ceremony   
517.16 Immaterial Irregularity of Officiating Person Does Not Void   
517.17 Repealed, 1978 c 772 s 63   
517.18 Marriage Solemnization   
517.19 Repealed, 1980 c 589 s 38   
517.20 Application   
517.21 American Family Day  

517.0001 MS 2006 [Renumbered 15.001]

517.001 DEFINITION.
As used in this chapter, "local registrar" has the meaning given in section 144.212, subdivision 10.

History: 2004 c 273 s 2

517.01 MARRIAGE A CIVIL CONTRACT.
Marriage, so far as its validity in law is concerned, is a civil contract between a man and a woman, to which the consent of the parties, capable in law of contracting, is essential. Lawful marriage may be contracted only between persons of the opposite sex and only when a license has been obtained as provided by law and when the marriage is contracted in the presence of two witnesses and solemnized by one authorized, or whom one or both of the parties in good faith believe to be authorized, so to do. Marriages subsequent to April 26, 1941, not so contracted shall be null and void.
History: (8562) RL s 3552; 1941 c 459; 1977 c 441 s 1; 1978 c 772 s 1; 1997 c 203 art 10 s 1

517.02 PERSONS CAPABLE OF CONTRACTING.
Every person who has attained the full age of 18 years is capable in law of contracting marriage, if otherwise competent. A person of the full age of 16 years may, with the consent of the person's legal custodial parents, guardian, or the court, as provided in section 517.08, receive a license to marry, when, after a careful inquiry into the facts and the surrounding circumstances, the person's application for a license and consent for marriage of a minor form is approved by the judge of the district court of the county in which the person resides. If the judge of the district court of the county in which the person resides is absent from the county and has not by order assigned another judge or a retired judge to act in the judge's stead, then the court commissioner or any judge of district court of the county may approve the application for a license.
The consent for marriage of a minor must be in the following form:
STATE OF MINNESOTA, COUNTY OF .................... (insert county name)
I/We ........................... (insert legal custodial parent or guardian names) under oath or affirmation say:
That I/we are the legal custodial parent(s) or guardian of ........................... (insert name of minor), who was born at ........................... (insert place of birth) on ........................... (insert date of birth) who is presently the age of ....... (insert age).
That the minor has not been previously married.
That I/we consent to the marriage of this minor to ........................... (insert name of the person minor intends to marry) who is of the age of ....... (insert age).
That affidavit is being made for the purpose of requesting the judge's consent to allow this minor to marry and make this marriage legal.
Date: .............................
.....................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................
(Signature of legal custodial parents or guardian)
Sworn to or affirmed and acknowledged before me on this ....... day of .................... .
..........................................
NOTARY PUBLIC
STATE OF MINNESOTA, COUNTY OF .................... (insert county name).
The undersigned is the judge of the district court where the minor resides and grants the request for the minor to marry.
................................ (judge of district court)
................................ (date).
History: (8563) RL s 3553; 1927 c 166; 1949 c 374 s 1; 1963 c 795 s 1; 1967 c 506 s 1; 1973 c 725 s 72; 1981 c 58 s 1; 1995 c 189 s 8; 1996 c 277 s 1; 2009 c 129 s 1

517.03 PROHIBITED MARRIAGES.

Subdivision 1.General. 
(a) The following marriages are prohibited:
(1) a marriage entered into before the dissolution of an earlier marriage of one of the parties becomes final, as provided in section 518.145 or by the law of the jurisdiction where the dissolution was granted;
(2) a marriage between an ancestor and a descendant, or between a brother and a sister, whether the relationship is by the half or the whole blood or by adoption;
(3) a marriage between an uncle and a niece, between an aunt and a nephew, or between first cousins, whether the relationship is by the half or the whole blood, except as to marriages permitted by the established customs of aboriginal cultures; and
(4) a marriage between persons of the same sex.
(b) A marriage entered into by persons of the same sex, either under common law or statute, that is recognized by another state or foreign jurisdiction is void in this state and contractual rights granted by virtue of the marriage or its termination are unenforceable in this state.

Subd. 2.Developmentally disabled persons; consent by commissioner of human services.
 Developmentally disabled persons committed to the guardianship of the commissioner of human services and developmentally disabled persons committed to the conservatorship of the commissioner of human services in which the terms of the conservatorship limit the right to marry, may marry on receipt of written consent of the commissioner. The commissioner shall grant consent unless it appears from the commissioner's investigation that the marriage is not in the best interest of the ward or conservatee and the public. The local registrar in the county where the application for a license is made by the ward or conservatee shall not issue the license unless the local registrar has received a signed copy of the consent of the commissioner of human services.
History: (8564) RL s 3554; 1911 c 222 s 1; 1937 c 407 s 1; 1945 c 12 s 1; 1947 c 623 s 1; 1959 c 638 s 1; 1963 c 795 s 2; 1974 c 406 s 52; 1975 c 208 s 34; 1978 c 772 s 2; 1979 c 259 s 1; 1984 c 654 art 5 s 58; 1985 c 21 s 67; 1986 c 444; 1Sp1986 c 3 art 1 s 82; 1997 c 203 art 10 s 2; 2005 c 56 s 1;2009 c 129 s 2

517.04 PERSONS AUTHORIZED TO PERFORM MARRIAGES.
Marriages may be solemnized throughout the state by an individual who has attained the age of 21 years and is a judge of a court of record, a retired judge of a court of record, a court administrator, a retired court administrator with the approval of the chief judge of the judicial district, a former court commissioner who is employed by the court system or is acting pursuant to an order of the chief judge of the commissioner's judicial district, the residential school administrators of the Minnesota State Academy for the Deaf and the Minnesota State Academy for the Blind, a licensed or ordained minister of any religious denomination, or by any mode recognized in section 517.18.
History: (8565) RL s 3555; 1978 c 772 s 3; 1981 c 101 s 1; 1986 c 444; 1Sp1986 c 3 art 1 s 82; 1987 c 377 s 10; 1987 c 384 art 1 s 55; 1991 c 85 s 1;1995 c 129 s 1; 2009 c 129 s 3

517.041 POWER TO APPOINT COURT COMMISSIONER; DUTY.
The Third Judicial District may appoint as court commissioner for Fillmore and Olmsted Counties respectively a person who was formerly employed by those counties as a court commissioner.
The sole duty of an appointed court commissioner is to solemnize marriages.
History: 1982 c 499 s 1; 1983 c 136 s 1; 2006 c 260 art 5 s 46

517.05 CREDENTIALS OF MINISTER.
Ministers of any religious denomination, before they are authorized to solemnize a marriage, shall file a copy of their credentials of license or ordination or, if their religious denomination does not issue credentials, authority from the minister's spiritual assembly, with the local registrar of a county in this state, who shall record the same and give a certificate of filing thereof. The place where the credentials are recorded shall be endorsed upon and recorded with each certificate of marriage granted by a minister.
History: (8566) RL s 3556; 1978 c 772 s 4; 1Sp1986 c 3 art 1 s 82; 2009 c 129 s 4

517.06 PARTIES EXAMINED.
Every person authorized by law to perform the marriage ceremony, before solemnizing a marriage, may examine the parties on oath, which oath the person is authorized to administer, as to the legality of the intended marriage. No person shall solemnize a marriage unless satisfied that there is no legal impediment to it, that a marriage license has been obtained, and that the individuals present are the persons named in the license.
History: 
(8567) RL s 3557; 1978 c 772 s 5; 1986 c 444; 2009 c 129 s 5

517.07 LICENSE.
Before any persons are joined in marriage in Minnesota, a license shall be obtained from the local registrar of any county within Minnesota. The marriage need not take place in the county where the license is obtained but must take place within the geographical borders of Minnesota.
History: 
(8568) RL s 3558; 1957 c 410 s 1; 1978 c 772 s 6; 1Sp1986 c 3 art 1 s 82; 2004 c 273 s 3; 2009 c 129 s 6

517.071 [Repealed, 1978 c 699 s 17]

517.08 APPLICATION FOR LICENSE.
Subdivision 1.
 
[Renumbered subds 1a and 1b]
Subd. 1a.Form.
 
Application for a marriage license shall be made by both of the parties upon a form provided for the purpose and shall contain the following information:
(1) the full names of the parties and the sex of each party;
(2) their post office addresses and county and state of residence;
(3) their full ages;
(4) if either party has previously been married, the party's married name, and the date, place and court in which the marriage was dissolved or annulled or the date and place of death of the former spouse;
(5) if either party is a minor, the name and address of the minor's parents or guardian;
(6) whether the parties are related to each other, and, if so, their relationship;
(7) address of the bride and groom after the marriage to which the local registrar shall send a certified copy of the marriage certificate;
(8) the full names the parties will have after marriage and the parties' Social Security numbers. The Social Security numbers must be collected for the application but must not appear on the marriage license. If a party listed on a marriage application does not have a Social Security number, the party must certify on the application, or a supplement to the application, that the party does not have a Social Security number;
(9) if one or both of the parties to the marriage license has a felony conviction under Minnesota law or the law of another state or federal jurisdiction, the parties shall provide to the county proof of service upon the prosecuting authority and, if applicable, the attorney general, as required by section 259.13; and
(10) notice that a party who has a felony conviction under Minnesota law or the law of another state or federal jurisdiction may not use a different name after marriage except as authorized by section 259.13, and that doing so is a gross misdemeanor.

Subd. 1b.Term of license; fee; premarital education.
 
(a) The local registrar shall examine upon oath the parties applying for a license relative to the legality of the contemplated marriage. If one party is unable to appear in person, the party appearing may complete the absent applicant's information. The local registrar shall provide a copy of the marriage application to the party who is unable to appear, who must verify the accuracy of the party's information in a notarized statement. The marriage license must not be released until the verification statement has been received by the local registrar. If at the expiration of a five-day period, on being satisfied that there is no legal impediment to it, including the restriction contained in section 259.13, the local registrar shall issue the license, containing the full names of the parties before and after marriage, and county and state of residence, with the county seal attached, and make a record of the date of issuance. The license shall be valid for a period of six months. Except as provided in paragraph (c), the local registrar shall collect from the applicant a fee of $115 for administering the oath, issuing, recording, and filing all papers required, and preparing and transmitting to the state registrar of vital statistics the reports of marriage required by this section. If the license should not be used within the period of six months due to illness or other extenuating circumstances, it may be surrendered to the local registrar for cancellation, and in that case a new license shall issue upon request of the parties of the original license without fee. A local registrar who knowingly issues or signs a marriage license in any manner other than as provided in this section shall pay to the parties aggrieved an amount not to exceed $1,000.
(b) In case of emergency or extraordinary circumstances, a judge of the district court of the county in which the application is made may authorize the license to be issued at any time before expiration of the five-day period required under paragraph (a). A waiver of the five-day waiting period must be in the following form:
STATE OF MINNESOTA, COUNTY OF .................... (insert county name)
APPLICATION FOR WAIVER OF MARRIAGE LICENSE WAITING PERIOD:
................................................................................. (legal names of the applicants)
Represent and state as follows:
That on ......................... (date of application) the applicants applied to the local registrar of the above-named county for a license to marry.
That it is necessary that the license be issued before the expiration of five days from the date of the application by reason of the following: (insert reason for requesting waiver of waiting period)
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
WHEREAS, the applicants request that the judge waive the required five-day waiting period and the local registrar be authorized and directed to issue the marriage license immediately.
Date: .............................
.......................................................................................
.......................................................................................
(Signatures of applicants)
Acknowledged before me on this ....... day of .................... .
..........................................
NOTARY PUBLIC
COURT ORDER AND AUTHORIZATION:
STATE OF MINNESOTA, COUNTY OF .................... (insert county name)
After reviewing the above application, I am satisfied that an emergency or extraordinary circumstance exists that justifies the issuance of the marriage license before the expiration of five days from the date of the application. IT IS HEREBY ORDERED that the local registrar is authorized and directed to issue the license forthwith.
.....................................................
................................ (judge of district court)
................................ (date).
(c) The marriage license fee for parties who have completed at least 12 hours of premarital education is $40. In order to qualify for the reduced license fee, the parties must submit at the time of applying for the marriage license a statement that is signed, dated, and notarized or marked with a church seal from the person who provided the premarital education on their letterhead confirming that it was received. The premarital education must be provided by a licensed or ordained minister or the minister's designee, a person authorized to solemnize marriages under section 517.18, or a person authorized to practice marriage and family therapy under section 148B.33. The education must include the use of a premarital inventory and the teaching of communication and conflict management skills.
(d) The statement from the person who provided the premarital education under paragraph (b) must be in the following form:
"I, .......................... (name of educator), confirm that .......................... (names of both parties) received at least 12 hours of premarital education that included the use of a premarital inventory and the teaching of communication and conflict management skills. I am a licensed or ordained minister, a person authorized to solemnize marriages under Minnesota Statutes, section 517.18, or a person licensed to practice marriage and family therapy under Minnesota Statutes, section148B.33."
The names of the parties in the educator's statement must be identical to the legal names of the parties as they appear in the marriage license application. Notwithstanding section 138.17, the educator's statement must be retained for seven years, after which time it may be destroyed.
(e) If section 259.13 applies to the request for a marriage license, the local registrar shall grant the marriage license without the requested name change. Alternatively, the local registrar may delay the granting of the marriage license until the party with the conviction:
(1) certifies under oath that 30 days have passed since service of the notice for a name change upon the prosecuting authority and, if applicable, the attorney general and no objection has been filed under section 259.13; or
(2) provides a certified copy of the court order granting it. The parties seeking the marriage license shall have the right to choose to have the license granted without the name change or to delay its granting pending further action on the name change request.

Subd. 1c.Disposition of license fee.
 (a) Of the marriage license fee collected pursuant to subdivision 1b, paragraph (a), $25 must be retained by the county. The local registrar must pay $90 to the commissioner of management and budget to be deposited as follows:
(1) $55 in the general fund;
(2) $3 in the state government special revenue fund to be appropriated to the commissioner of public safety for parenting time centers under section 119A.37;
(3) $2 in the special revenue fund to be appropriated to the commissioner of health for developing and implementing the MN ENABL program under section145.9255;
(4) $25 in the special revenue fund is appropriated to the commissioner of employment and economic development for the displaced homemaker program under section 116L.96; and
(5) $5 in the special revenue fund, which is appropriated to the Board of Regents of the University of Minnesota for the Minnesota couples on the brink project under section 137.32.

(b) Of the $40 fee under subdivision 1b, paragraph (b), $25 must be retained by the county. The local registrar must pay $15 to the commissioner of management and budget to be deposited as follows:
(1) $5 as provided in paragraph (a), clauses (2) and (3); and
(2) $10 in the special revenue fund is appropriated to the commissioner of employment and economic development for the displaced homemaker program under section 116L.96.
Subd. 2. [Repealed, 1978 c 699 s 17]

Subd. 3. [Repealed, 1978 c 699 s 17]

Subd. 4.Report.
 The local registrar of each county shall annually report to the Department of Health the number of marriage licenses issued in the county for which the fee in subdivision 1b, paragraph (a), was paid and the number for which the fee in subdivision 1b, paragraph (b), was paid.
History: (8569) RL s 3559; 1931 c 401 s 1; 1939 c 243 s 1; 1949 c 374 s 1; 1951 c 700 s 1; 1955 c 762 s 1; 1957 c 886 s 1; 1963 c 795 s 3; 1969 c 1145 s 3; 1973 c 725 s 73; 1975 c 52 s 3; 1977 c 441 s 2,3; 1978 c 674 s 42; 1978 c 730 s 2; 1978 c 772 s 7; 1981 c 360 art 2 s 43,44; 1983 c 262 art 1 s 6;1983 c 312 art 3 s 3,4; 1984 c 654 art 5 s 54; 1Sp1985 c 9 art 2 s 95,96; 1Sp1985 c 14 art 9 s 75; 1986 c 444; 1Sp1986 c 3 art 1 s 82; 1989 c 282 art 2 s 187; 1989 c 335 art 4 s 98; 1992 c 464 art 1 s 47; 1995 c 257 art 4 s 11,12; 1997 c 162 art 2 s 26; 1997 c 203 art 5 s 37; art 6 s 34; art 10 s 3; 1998 c 254 art 2 s 59; 2000 c 311 art 3 s 4,5; 2000 c 444 art 2 s 14; 2001 c 7 s 84; 1Sp2001 c 10 art 2 s 81,82; 2003 c 112 art 2 s 50; 2003 c 128 art 12 s 3,4; 2003 c 130 s 12; 2004 c 206 s 52; 2004 c 273 s 4-6; 1Sp2005 c 1 art 4 s 114,115; 2007 c 146 art 7 s 2; 2007 c 148 art 2 s 71,72; 2009 c 101 art 2 s 109; 2009 c 129 s 7,8; 2010 c 200 art 1 s 17; 2010 c 380 s 17; 1Sp2010 c 1 art 19 s 17,18

517.09 SOLEMNIZATION.
No particular form is required to solemnize a marriage, except: the parties shall declare in the presence of a person authorized to solemnize marriages and two attending witnesses that they take each other as husband and wife; or the marriage shall be solemnized in a manner provided by section 517.18.
History:  (8570) RL s 3560; 1945 c 409 s 1-3; 1951 c 255 s 1; 1951 c 700 s 2; 1978 c 772 s 9

517.10 CERTIFICATE; WITNESSES.
The person solemnizing a marriage shall prepare and sign a certificate. The certificate shall contain the full names of the parties before and after marriage, the birth dates of the parties, and county and state of residences of the parties and the date and place of the marriage. The certificate shall also contain the signatures of at least two of the witnesses present at the marriage who shall be at least 16 years of age. The person solemnizing the marriage shall immediately make a record of such marriage, and file such certificate with the local registrar of the county in which the license was issued within five days after the ceremony. The local registrar shall record such certificate in the county marriage records.
History: (8571) RL s 3561; 1949 c 374 s 3; 1951 c 700 s 3; 1977 c 441 s 5; 1986 c 444; 1Sp1986 c 3 art 1 s 82; 2004 c 273 s 7; 2009 c 129 s 9

517.101 CERTIFIED COPIES OF MARRIAGE CERTIFICATE.
Within ten days of receipt of the certificate and after recording the certificate the local registrar shall prepare a certified copy of the certificate to be mailed to the married parties.History: 1977 c 441 s 4; 1986 c 444; 1Sp1986 c 3 art 1 s 82; 1991 c 281 s 2; 2009 c 129 s 10

517.11 [Repealed, 1951 c 700 s 5]

517.12 [Repealed, 1951 c 700 s 5]

517.13 PENALTY FOR FAILURE TO FILE CERTIFICATE.
Every person solemnizing a marriage who neglects to file a certificate with the local registrar within the time set forth in section 517.10 shall forfeit a sum not exceeding $100, and every local registrar who neglects to record a certificate shall forfeit a like sum.History: (857 4) RL s 3563; 1978 c 772 s 10; 1Sp1986 c 3 art 1 s 82; 2004 c 273 s 8; 2009 c 129 s 11

517.14 ILLEGAL MARRIAGE; FALSE CERTIFICATE; PENALTY.
A person authorized by law to solemnize marriages who knowingly solemnizes a marriage contrary to the provisions of this chapter, or knowing of any legal impediment to the proposed marriage, or who willfully makes a false certificate of any marriage or pretended marriage is guilty of a misdemeanor.
History: (8575) RL s 3564; 1978 c 772 s 11

517.15 UNAUTHORIZED PERSON PERFORMING CEREMONY.
A person who knowingly undertakes to solemnize a marriage, without lawful authority to do so, is guilty of a misdemeanor.
History: (8576) RL s 3565; 1978 c 772 s 12; 1986 c 444

517.16 IMMATERIAL IRREGULARITY OF OFFICIATING PERSON DOES NOT VOID.
A marriage solemnized before a person professing to be lawfully authorized to do so shall not be adjudged to be void, nor shall its validity be in any way affected, on account of a want of jurisdiction or authority in the supposed officer or person, if the marriage is consummated with the full belief on the part of the persons so married, or either of them, that they have been lawfully joined in marriage.
History: (8577) RL s 3566; 1978 c 772 s 13

517.17 [Repealed, 1978 c 772 s 63]

517.18 MARRIAGE SOLEMNIZATION.
Subdivision 1.Friends or Quakers.
 All marriages solemnized among the people called Friends or Quakers, in the form heretofore practiced and in use in their meetings, shall be valid and not affected by any of the foregoing provisions. The clerk of the meeting in which such marriage is solemnized, within one month after any such marriage, shall deliver a certificate of the same to the local registrar of the county where the marriage took place, under penalty of not more than $100. Such certificate shall be filed and recorded by the court administrator under a like penalty. If such marriage does not take place in such meeting, such certificate shall be signed by the parties and at least six witnesses present, and shall be filed and recorded as above provided under a like penalty.

Subd. 2.Baha'i.
 Marriages may be solemnized among members of the Baha'i faith by the chair of an incorporated local Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is, according to the form and usage of such society.

Subd. 3.Hindus; Muslims.
 Marriages may be solemnized among Hindus or Muslims by the person chosen by a local Hindu or Muslim association, according to the form and usage of their respective religions.

Subd. 4.American Indians.
 Marriages may be solemnized among American Indians according to the form and usage of their religion by an Indian Mide' or holy person chosen by the parties to the marriage.

Subd. 5.Construction of section.
 Nothing in subdivisions 2 to 4 shall be construed to alter the requirements of section 517.01, 517.09 or 517.10.
History: 
(8578) RL s 3567; 1947 c 66 s 1; 1967 c 247 s 1; 1976 c 11 s 1; 1979 c 243 s 12; 1986 c 444; 1Sp1986 c 3 art 1 s 82; 2004 c 273 s 9

517.19 [Repealed, 1980 c 589 s 38]

517.20 APPLICATION.
Except as provided in section 517.03, subdivision 1, paragraph (b), all marriages contracted within this state prior to March 1, 1979 or outside this state that were valid at the time of the contract or subsequently validated by the laws of the place in which they were contracted or by the domicile of the parties are valid in this state.
History: 
1978 c 772 s 15; 1997 c 203 art 10 s 4

EXHIBIT B RAMSEY COUNTY INSTRUCTIONS TO GET MARRIAGE LICENSE

REQUIREMENTS:
· Our office is located at 555 Cedar Street, downtown Saint Paul, 55101.  This is the only office in Ramsey County where you can apply for a marriage license.  
· Only one party need apply, but you must apply in person.  
· You must have a license purchased before getting married.   A license purchased in Minnesota is only valid in Minnesota and can not be used in any other state.  A marriage license must be used within six months or it expires. 
· No blood test or physical is required. 
· To obtain a marriage license (without parental consent)  you must be 18 years of age.  Be prepared to present valid identification.  
· One of the applicants must be a man and the other a woman. 
· For each person, you must know the full legal name, address, date and place of birth, telephone numbers and social security numbers (if you have one). 
· You must know the names after marriage and an after-marriage address. 
· If you have been previously married and are divorced, you must bring your divorce decree with you.  If you are widowed, please provide the date of death.
Anyone changing their name as part of the marriage license process must state on the marriage license application, whether they have ever been convicted of a felony.  If the party changing their name has a felony conviction, there is a procedure that must be followed before the marriage license can be issued with that name change. If the person changing their name is not present at the time of application, the Supplemental Marriage License Application (pdf) may be submitted by the other party.
Please review the sample Ramsey County Marriage License Application (pdf) - You will be asked to fill out an actual carbonized application when you arrive in our office.
FEES:
In the State of Minnesota there is a five day waiting period (after you apply for your license) before you can come back to pick up your license. The fee is $100.00 (Effective July 1, 2005) Checks and money orders can be made payable to: Ramsey County.
If you apply with cash or check you can pick up the license five to seven days after application.  See following schedule: 
· If you apply on Monday, Tuesday or Wednesday, you can pick up the license the following Monday. 
· If you apply on Thursday, you can pick it up the license the following Tuesday. 
· If you apply on Friday, you pick up the license the following Wednesday.
If you have completed 12 hours of special premarital counseling as specified in paragraph b of statute 517.08 Subd. 1b, you may be eligible for the reduced marriage license application fee of $30.00 instead of $100.00.
PROOF OF COUNSELING MUST BE PRESENTED AT THE TIME OF APPLICATION!
If you do not have the required form, you may download our form for completion prior to coming in to apply for a marriage license. 
· Reduced Fee Premarital Education Statement Form (pdf) 
· Reduced Fee Marriage License Information (pdf)
CIVIL MARRIAGE CEREMONIES:
If you are interested in a Civil Marriage Ceremony, you must contact a judge yourself.  Minnesota does not have any Justice of the Peace. Referees cannot perform marriages and not all Judges wish to perform marriages.  Ramsey County Judges that perform wedding ceremonies (pdf).
LEGAL NAME CHANGE (OUTSIDE OF MARRIAGE):
Legal name changes (other than those done through marriage) are handled by Ramsey District Courts.  Please call Civil Court General Information at 651.266.8253 or download instructions and forms on the Ramsey District Court website.  Forms are located under "Legal Forms" and then found by scrolling down to "Name Change".
QUESTIONS:
· Please call us at 651.266.1333 or Ask Vital Records 
Information that is transmitted by email is NOT secure.  Ramsey County recommends that you do not use email to send private or confidential data. 
· If you are under 18 years of age, please call 651.266.1333 for further information. 
Exhibit C -Domestic Partnerships in Minnesota

Minnesota does not have a state domestic partner law, nor a state domestic partner registry or any state-wide benefits to domestic partners. However, the state also does not have a definition of marriage in its constitution, meaning that a domestic partner law or same-sex marriage could be possible in the future.

Domestic Partnerships
Nearly a dozen states and over 100 cities and counties have domestic partnership registries. "Domestic partnership" is often used as a legal alternative to marriage for heterosexual couples that do not want to marry and same-sex couples that cannot legally marry. In many jurisdictions, registering as domestic partners may confer benefits such as hospital visitation rights, inheritance rights and joint health insurance.


The laws regarding domestic partner benefits vary from state to state. Minnesota Gov. Tim Pawlenty vetoed a bill in 2008 for domestic partnership benefits across the entire state, but specific cities allow domestic partnership registration to their residents.

At least seven Minnesota cities have Domestic Partnership Ordinances
 Minneapolis, Duluth, Saint Paul, Edina, Rochester, Maplewood, and Golden Valley.

Minneapolis Domestic Partnership Ordinance
http://www.ci.minneapolis.mn.us/domestic-partner-registration/

http://www.ci.minneapolis.mn.us/domestic-partner-registration/domestic-partners-application.pdf

http://www.ci.minneapolis.mn.us/domestic-partner-registration/domestic-partners-termination.pdf


Saint Paul Domestic Partnership Registration
http://www.stpaul.gov/index.aspx?NID=3338
Domestic Partnership Registration
How to File for Domestic Partner Registration
Contact
Shari Moore
City Clerk
Email

15 Kellogg Blvd. West
310 City Hall
Saint Paul, MN  55102

Ph: (651) 266-8688
Fx: (651) 266-8574

Hours
8:00 am - 4:30 pm
Monday - Friday
· Read the Domestic Partner Registration Ordinance
· Complete the Domestic Partner Registration Form
· Include the $20 registration fee
· Mail or hand deliver to the City Clerk's Office
· Both partners will receive a certificate of registration

Domestic partners are two adults who:
· Are not related by blood or adoption closer than permitted under marriage laws of the state;
· Have entered into a committed interdependent relationship
· Are competent to enter into a contract;
· Have no other domestic partner with whom the household is shared, or with whom the adult person has another domestic partner;
· Are jointly responsible to each other for the necessities of life.   
Golden Valley, effective 1/1/11


University of Minnesota Declaration of Domestic Partnership
--for Employee Benefits
Exhibit D, Document distributed before our 12/5/10 Assembly
 
WC Recommendation re SOSSCC performing Civil Marriages

 In solidarity with other churches seeking justice and as a practice of inclusiveness and hospitality, the Worship Committee recommends that SOSSCC bless all unions between two adult persons, but as a community not sign and file marriage licenses (the civil obligations of the officiant in order to have the marriage recognized by the State) until all unions are recognized by the State of Minnesota. 

WC asked the community to begin thinking about this topic at the December 5, 2010 Assembly and hope to have a vote at the Spring Assembly if we are ready then.
 
Background
            We have been discussing this informally for several years.  Increasingly, in places where non-heterosexual couples may not legally marry, some progressive churches are uncomfortable combining the legalities/”doing Caesar’s work” with the religious ceremony.   At our first Sacraments Retreat in July 2010, WC discussed weddings and civil marriage and reached consensus that we would like this proposal brought to the next Assembly.

1. THIS IS ONLY A PROPOSAL; we expect the Assembly to make a decision.
2. We invite the Community to take this issue into our prayer of reconciliation and justice over this new liturgical year.
3. Together we will take time to study the issues and discuss them.  
4. Questions that you would like clarified, additional information, and suggestions about how we might best discuss and discern should be submitted to Mary Wilmes or Suzanne Severson, WC Co-Chairs.
5. We will schedule one or more times for community discussion.

Please review the background materials prepared by the Worship Committee sent out through Yahoo and filed on our website in the Worship Committee section.  A small number of paper copies are circulating now for those members lacking Internet access.  Materials include:

Background Materials, WC Recommendation re SOSSCC performing Civil Marriages

A. Statements from the following churches re their decisions to stop performing civil marriages 
2009-11-13 Twin Cities Friends, p.2
2006-5-24  Mayflower Community Congregational Church, Mpls, p.3
         Please especially note their policy statement, which is in bold type
2006-4 Lyndale UCC, Mpls, p.4
2005-7-4 UCC’s General Synod, p.6 
2002, White Bear Unitarian Universalist Church, p.6

B. Web links for 8 YouTube videos of local religious leaders speaking for marriage equality for Out Front Minnesota, and three other videos .from OutFront, titled Marriage Matters, on why there should be marriage equality. p.6
(If you start with any link, like http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nmuLcUJARTU), you can get to all the others.)
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from  Twin Cities Friends' website:
http://www.tcfm.org/article/minute-for-marriage-equality Posted on Dec. 08, 2009 | 

Holding to our longstanding Testimonies of equality and integrity as they relate to justice for all peoples, we recognize the discomfort we feel when we provide civil marriage for straight couples but are unable to do the same for same-sex couples within the state of Minnesota.
The Quaker tradition is one of Spirit-led activism on behalf of civil rights
and justice. Given that a foremost civil rights issue today concerns the right for all couples to marry, regardless of gender, TCFM unites with a growing number of Quaker and other faith communities who are working for marriage equality.
We affirm the right for all caring couples to marry religiously and civilly.
TCFM is not against the right of the state to give legal sanction to marriage. Rather we are called to witness against the injustice of the system as currently practiced.
In light of this searching, and because we often learn God’s Truth based on direct experience, we recommend a period of testing the following actions.
That TCFM:
1. Choose to lay aside for a period of three years–while still retaining–its legal right to perform the civil part of marriage;
In addition, TCFM will:
1. Continue to provide clearness committees for all couples who request one for marriage;
2. Continue to witness religious weddings in the manner of Friends, that is, bearing witness to God’s marriage of two people;
3. Continue to take under its care all relationships and marriages that exist within the community;
4. Continue to support all couples who seek civil marriage, regardless of the gender of the partners;
5. Seek opportunities to bear witness outwardly until equal treatment under the law exist for all couples.
We search for ways to expand the rights of some couples without restricting the rights of others. In the midst of wrestling within our meeting and in our state, we support marriage equality for all caring, committed couples. We trust that by TCFM’s action and witness, we will help hasten progress toward marriage equality for all.
Approved by Meeting for Worship with Attention to Business Nov. 13, 2009.
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Mayflower Church (UCC) 
FROM:  http://www.mayflowermpls.org/worship/weddings
As an Open and Affirming congregation of the United Church of Christ, Mayflower Church believes that marriage is a covenant made in the presence of God between two people, regardless of their gender or sexual orientation.

Weddings at Mayflower range from the very simple to the very elaborate, and from the very traditional to the very innovative. We are committed to helping couples affiliated with Mayflower Church plan a service that reflects their desires and expresses the uniqueness of their relationships. Couples are expected to participate in four sessions of pre-marriage counseling with a minister and are involved in the preparation of the service.

In May 2006, the Mayflower Church congregation adopted a policy that supports its Open and Affirming stance by separating the holy rite of marriage from the civil institution of marriage as defined by the state of Minnesota. We believe that current civil marriage policies are discriminatory to members of our community. Therefore, at least until those policies are corrected, Mayflower Church will no longer perform civil marriages as an agent of the State of Minnesota. We will continue to perform religious marriages for all couples, regardless of gender.
For further information, contact Rev. Howard K. Bell at (612) 824-0762 x140.

http://www.ucc.org/news/minneapolis-church.html
Minneapolis church votes to separate civil and sacred wedding activities
Written by Abby J. Heckler May 31, 2006
Under this newly passed policy, the clergy at Mayflower will continue to perform sacred wedding ceremonies for all couples all seeking the sacredness of a church wedding will be treated the same at Mayflower UCC. However, Mayflower clergy will no longer act as an agent of the State of Minnesota by signing marriage licenses.
Couples who have a wedding ceremony at Mayflower UCC also will need to make the marriage legal by a county official, if they are eligible and wish to enter into a civil marriage in Minnesota.
"Since many members of the Mayflower congregation feel that state marriage law discriminates against gay members of our congregation, the congregation has decided to separate itself from what it sees as an unfair and discriminatory state law," said the Rev. Sarah Campbell, lead minister at Mayflower UCC.
Mayflower UCC decided to review its marriage policies in response to a resolution approved by the United Church of Christ General Synod 25 in July 2005 in Atlanta. The resolution calls upon congregations to consider wedding policies that do not discriminate against couples based on gender.
"This proposal was brought forward by a group of church members concerned about the inherent unfairness of current Minnesota marriage law which denies legal protections, benefits and equality to certain segments of the population based on sexual orientation. The approval of this resolution by more than a two-thirds vote is evidence of widespread support in the congregation for fairness and justice in the church's wedding policies," said Campbell after the recent vote at Mayflower UCC's annual congregational meeting.
In adopting this new policy, Mayflower UCC joins more than a half dozen UCC churches nationwide that have accepted similar rules separating civil and sacred marriage activities at their churches. Mayflower UCC is the second church in the Minneapolis area in the past two months to adopt this policy. Lyndale United Church of Christ unanimously voted on accepting a new marriage policy on April 9, 2006.
"We're saying that we're privileged to marry people in the eyes of God, but we won't do it in the eyes of the state anymore. We're trying to separate the function of religious institutions and the state," said the Rev. Don Portwood, Lyndale UCC pastor. "Religious institutions bless relationships, not make them legal."


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Marriage Equality Statement 
Lyndale United Church of Christ endorses Equal Marriage Rights for All, including 
1) affirming equal marriage rights for couples regardless of gender and 
2) endorsing marriage policies that do not discriminate against couples based on gender. 

Effective April 9, 2006 Lyndale Church and its pastor/s will no longer perform civil/religious marriages as an agent of the State of Minnesota. We will continue to perform religious marriages only, for all couples, same or opposite gender.

LYNDALE CHURCH OPPOSES GAY-MARRIAGE BAN 
Anna Pratt, Southwest Journal  April 24-May 7, 2006, Southwest Journal April 24-May 7 2006

Church plans to perform religious weddings exclusively Lyndale United Church of Christ opposed a constitutional amendment that would ban same-sex marriages by discontinuing civil weddings under a resolution the congregation passed unanimously on Sunday, April 9. 

Now the church will perform religious weddings exclusively, as it has for 120 years for heterosexual couples and since 1991 for gays. The decision was announced at a press conference on Wednesday, April 12 at the church at 810 W. 31st St. 

Lyndale United, which has 200 members, reacted to a call from the United Church of Christ General Synod 25 to stop discriminating against gays and the congregation's own “open and affirming” policy. The vote followed a five-week study on the issue. White Bear Lake Unitarian Universalist Fellowship in Mahtomedi passed a similar motion three years ago. Soon, Mayflower Congregational United Church of Christ, 106 E. Diamond Lk. Rd., will also vote on the issue. 

Lyndale Pastor Don Portwood said, “We're saying that we're privileged to marry people in the eyes of God, but we won't do it in the eyes of the state anymore. We're trying to separate the function of religious institutions and the state,” he said. “Religious institutions bless relationships, not make them legal.” 

Lyndale United member Rebecca Voelkel, also a reverend, said, “This is a clear case of the state practicing discrimination against some of its citizenry. When that happens, we're called to witness against discrimination or injustice and to find ways to practice justice as much as possible.” 

Lyndale church member Mary Martin, who lives in a senior complex with her husband in Kenwood-Isles, said that she supports equal rights for everyone. “I feel honored to be a part of a congregation that makes a stand on this issue. As a straight couple, we've benefited all these years from all the rights that go along with being married. It should be free to everyone,” she said. 

The United Church of Christ has a long history of civil rights activism. The denomination ordained its first openly gay minister in 1973. Its first female minister was ordained in 1853. Some church members were also involved in the abolitionist movement and, later, the civil rights movement in the 1950s.

CHURCH SEPARATES FROM STATE WHEN IT COMES TO MARRIAGE 
Pamela Miller, StarTribune  April 15, 2006 

When members of Lyndale United Church of Christ in Minneapolis realized that they all believed it was unfair that straight couples can legally marry and gay couples can't, they decided to demonstrate their solidarity. 

The congregation of 135 active members, about one-third of them gay, voted unanimously this week to stop offering civil weddings at the church, said Michael Vanderford, moderator for the congregation. 

"We see this as a way to treat all couples, gay and straight, equally," he said. 

The decision means that heterosexual couples will receive the same religious marriage ceremony at the church that gay couples receive, but they will have to go to a justice of the peace to have the state recognize their union, said the Rev. Don Portwood, Lyndale’s pastor. 

"Since government is not going to provide us with equal rights, we decided our church would move to treat people equally," Portwood said. "By going along with the laws of the state, we end up discriminating against our own members." 

Chuck Darrell, communications director for the Minnesota Family Council, said such actions show that advocates of same-sex unions will not be content until they have "full-fledged gay marriage." 

The Rev. Rebecca Voelkel, a member of Lyndale United, acknowledged that people of faith cite scriptures for both sides of the same-sex marriage debate. 

”The arc of the gospel always moves toward circles of inclusivity, and in earlier debates about human rights, people who err on the side of inclusivity have been proven right,” she said. “Very few passages in the Bible deal with homosexuality, but many can be lifted up in arguments for justice and equal treatment.” 

Portwood said that in making its stand, his church is “talking about discrimination and equality, not quoting specific scriptures.” 

The church is following the direction of its synod, which in a July 2005 resolution urged member congregations to “consider adopting wedding policies that do not discriminate against couples based on gender.” 

Members of Mayflower Community Congregational Church in Minneapolis, which is also a congregation of the United Church of Christ synod, plan to vote on a similar resolution at their annual meeting in May, said the church's pastor, the Rev. Sarah Campbell. 

White Bear Unitarian Universalist Church has had such a policy for several years. Its pastor, the Rev. Victoria Safford, said that while such actions may not change minds wholesale, “change comes one person at a time.” 

“For instance, at wedding receptions, I'll hear people say, 'The couple has to do what [to obtain a civil marriage]? And why?'” she said. “They talk it over, and while it may not change their minds right there, over time, aunts and uncles and grandmothers start to think about why some loving, committed couples are treated differently from others.” (Reprinted from the StarTribune) 

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Per the UCC website, http://www.ucc.org/about-us/ucc-firsts.html

 On July 4, 2005, UCC’s General Synod overwhelmingly passed a resolution supporting same-gender marriage equality.  UCC General Minister and President Jon Thomas says that the Synod “has acted courageously to declare freedom, affirming marriage equality affirming the civil rights of same gender couples….and encouraging our local churches to celebrate and bless these marriages.”
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In 2002, Rev. Victoria Safford, of the White Bear Unitarian Universalist Church, stopped signing legal marriage licenses. “What we have found is that the members of our congregation have supported this decision wholeheartedly. There is an extra step now, in addition to meeting with me, and with their caterer, and planning the ceremony; they have to find a judge or civic authority who will sign their marriage papers.”

 Eight YouTube OutFront videos of local religious leaders speaking for marriage equality:
1-Rev. Victoria Safford, White Bear Unitarian Universalist 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nmuLcUJARTU
2-Rev. Rob Eller-Isaacs, Unity Church – Unitarian, St. Paul, 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TYra4yjaqM4&feature=related
3-Rev. Sarah Campbell, Mayflower, Minneapolis
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=60jym85WbUM&feature=related
4-Rev. Robyn Provis, All God’s Children, Minneapolis
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0e0DtNGHEYk&feature=mfu_in_order&list=UL
5-Pastor Anita Hill on marriage equality, St. Paul Reformation Lutheran
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aFyBhfkbR3E&feature=mfu_in_order&list=UL
6-Rev. Doug Donle, University Baptist Church, Minneapolis
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DzBwkfwuRv0&feature=mfu_in_order&list=UL
Rabbi Jared Sachs, Temple Israel, Mineapolis
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gDFTlwRFAK0&feature=mfu_in_order&list=UL
Lowell Erdahl, former Bishop of St. Paul Synod of ELCA
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O8pnHee08jU&list=UL5kOECTa1JAk&playnext=1

Three other videos from OutFront, titled Marriage Matters, on why there should be marriage equality. 
1) An RN talks about the difficulties a same sex couple experienced when one of them was dying. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q85YwrgJ_5A&feature=mfu_in_order&list=UL
2) True to their social justice standards, a straight couple explains why they married outside the U.S
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HgBrirQwGWc&feature=related
3) A mom talks about her love for her lesbian daughter, her daughter's wife, and their new son. 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k1l2auvUmmY&feature=related







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